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School of Health and Human Services

Current Students - MRAD Program Handbook

Medical Radiography (MRAD) Program Handbook

Last updated: September 12, 2018

The School of Health and Human Services is a place of warmth and caring. We are always looking to connect with future and current students so please don't hesitate to hhsinfo@camosun.ca if you have any questions.

Camosun College campuses are located on the traditional territories of the Lkwungen and W̱SÁNEĆ peoples. We acknowledge their welcome and graciousness to the students who seek knowledge here.


Once enrolled in a program, you're required to familiarize yourself with the information found in your school and program information pages.

Policies and expectations unique to our program are outlined in the following pages. Please ensure that you read the HHS Student Handbook for general school information.

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1. Welcome

1.1 Chair's Message

Your instructors, support staff, and I want welcome you to the Department of Allied Health & Technologies. We are so excited that you have chosen to embark on your educational journey with us at Camosun College. By choosing a program in Allied Health, you have demonstrated that you have a desire to work with people and technology while you serve the needs of your community. 

Allied Health is a term that encompasses the vast number of healthcare professionals working outside the practice of nursing or medicine. We are a growing force in healthcare workplaces, gaining recognition for our specialized expertise, change resilience, and professionalism. Allied Health professionals integrate into every aspect of patient and client care, particularly in Diagnostic and Therapeutic services. Forecasts for continued growth in these services across Canada means that job growth in Allied Health professions will likely continue well into the 2020's.

As you pursue your Allied Health education at Camosun College, you will see how passionate we are about supporting you on your journey as a student. Learning isn't always a linear pathway and success shouldn't always be defined by progression alone. We value all learning opportunities and recognize that at sometimes, it takes great challenges to reveal strength of heart, clarity of mind, and connection to spirit. We designed these guidelines and procedures to help you understand and access the resources and information you will need to be successful.

Your instructors in the Allied Health & Technologies Department are committed to helping you transform into competent, compassionate Allied Health professionals. We want you to thrive in the diverse and ever-changing environments within the healthcare workplace. We work hard to model and promote life-long best practices in Allied Health Sciences by providing you access to authentic learning opportunities using creative, innovative teaching practices. You will have the opportunity to experience the real workplace environments of your chosen profession where you will learn alongside actual employed professionals in your discipline.

No matter how long your program is, you are already a member of a diverse, interprofessional team of learners. Get to know the campus, explore the all the college's resources, and spend some time getting to know your instructors and your fellow students – they are all part of your support team. We know that your journey into your Allied Health education at Camosun College will be the beginning of an inspiring, life-changing future!

If you have any questions or concerns, please feel free to stop by my office, discuss them with one of your instructors, or any of the dedicated staff here at Camosun College.

Sincerely,

Lynelle Yutani MRT, RPA/RRA, RT
Chair, Department of Allied Health & Technologies

Contact the Allied Health & Technologies department.

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2. Program Values

Vision

In the Department of Allied Health & Technology, we inspire life-changing learning by transforming learners into competent, compassionate health professionals.

Mission

Our college seeks to build a better future for our community with relevant, innovative and applied education. We realize this by promoting life-long best practices in Allied Health sciences with authentic learning opportunities and creative, innovative teaching practices.

Values

We value our learners, because they choose us. Learners are why we exist. Everything we do should contribute to successful outcomes. The experiences we offer distinguish us from other institutions offering the same courses and programs that we do. Each Learner contributes uniquely. We value all human diversity, which enriches us all. We are all Learners. All students, staff, faculty, and administrators are learners. Remembering this helps us keep perspective. Every interaction between humans is a learning opportunity. Learning is everyone's responsibility.

Professionalism is a learned and vital skill for healthcare. Professionalism is the cornerstone of service to others in health care. It is the concept of constructed altruism, when fulfilling one's duty all actions taken should be in the best interest of the patient or client, not in self-interest. Professionalism is a learned behaviour, one that we choose to live and model for our students. We apply this more broadly to ourselves as educators as well as in our clinical practice. 1

  • Respect – We strive to do no harm to ourselves or others in either words or deeds. We care about the feelings and well-being of ourselves and others. Even when we dislike someone, we allow them equal forum.
  • Self-Regulation – We maintain the same level of decorum without oversight as we would under the pressure of observation. Even when no one is "overseeing or watching" us, we uphold our ethics & values. We freely accept our duty and commitment to service.
  • Integrity – We are committed to honesty, transparency, fairness, and promoting ethical behaviours. We are not afraid or embarrassed to admit when we are wrong or need help; this is how we grow and most importantly, how we all learn.
  • Accountability – We take personal responsibility for our thoughts, words, and deeds. We consider, and accept the consequences of our behaviours. We are accountable to each other, students, the college, the public, our governing bodies, and ourselves.
  • Leadership – We value the leader who is an ambassador for their cohort or field, proactively promoting their profession through mentorship and teaching. We willingly share our knowledge and experience.
  • Image – We display our values physically and visually with our outward appearance, language, and behaviours. We accept that how others perceive us affects our ability to interact successfully with them.
  • Specialized Knowledge – We make a deep personal commitment to attain, develop, maintain, and improve the knowledge required to perform our duty.
  • Mastery – We demonstrate excellence in applied knowledge by continuously striving to exceed our own best efforts through ongoing self-reflection, re-assessment, quality improvement, certification, and life-long learning. We believe reflective practice is crucial for attaining mastery.

Interprofessional/interdisciplinary collaboration builds healthy teams. We welcome and invite contributions from every team member. We strive for open and effective communication where each team member's voice is heard and respected. We each bring unique skills and strengths to the table, everyone benefits from working together. We collaborate to foster group pride and ownership in our accomplishments and satisfaction in tasks well done. We strive to demonstrate how collaborative behaviours and environments enhance group and personal success. We seek to empower students to do the same in pursuit of their educational goals.

Sustainability is necessary for progress. We accept that we are one part of a larger equation, and that our actions influence the overall balance of a greater whole. We do not fear the new and we do not discount traditional wisdoms. Be they ideas, processes, requirements, technology, needs, programming, or people, we use careful intent and intelligence to assess and benefit from future innovations and our existing resources. We commit to sustainable practices that help to ensure that we are able to continue providing a learner-centric environment for students of the future.  

Diversification is a path to growth. We continuously work to increase and enhance student access to existing programs by expanding capacity, creating more flexibility, and providing work integrated solutions to students. We recognize that adult learners come with a range of existing knowledge and skills in a wide range of abilities; all of which contribute to both success and challenges on the pathway to competence. We welcome and value aboriginal ways of being and knowing as ways to grow our practice understanding. We actively pursue new programing and continuing education opportunities. We explore and promote the establishment of new degrees, certifications, credentials, and diplomas that provide pathways for student growth and future success.

Quality is everyone's responsibility. We strive for continuous quality improvement of our student's experiences, our programming and curriculum, our equipment and learning tools, and ourselves. Quality assurance and improvement are the responsibility of every member of the team. We listen carefully to students, each other, our educational partners, our national certification agencies, and accrediting bodies. We reflect before we react; only responding with our collective best efforts to ensure we meet or exceed the highest quality standards in health science education.

1. Portions of this interpretation of Professionalism paraphrased from the Canadian Medical Association, The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, The American Board of Internal Medicine, and http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/professionalism.htm.

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3. Teaching Philosophy

We exist to provide students with a unique, learner-centred Medical Radiography education focused on superior professional preparation through:relevant, authentic learning experiences, access to state-of-the-art equipment and technology, and collaboratively supervised clinical practicums with hands-on patient care.

We aim to produce graduates with competence, compassion, and the highest level of professionalism who are well prepared to achieve entry-level proficiency as outlined by the Canadian Association of Medical Radiation Technologists and therefore are employable all across Canada.

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4. Program Learning Outcomes

Through the combination of rigorous academic study and practicum experience, students learn the art and science of performing diagnostic radiographic medical imaging procedures with competence, compassion, and the highest level of professionalism.

Levelled academic content with integrated simulation and clinical experiences allow students to demonstrate gradual attainment of competency in a learner-centric environment. Students experience a variety of approaches to educational delivery, including traditional face-to-face classroom instruction, practical simulation labs, enhanced courses combining face-to-face instruction with online learning supports, and exclusively on-line courses.

On campus, students utilize state-of-the-art educational tools such as: life-size adult and pediatric phantoms (simulated human bodies), digital radiographic units, and a fully-integrated online learning management system to prepare them for each of three different practicums at our partner sites. During each practicum, students develop and enhance their clinical skills and judgment by engaging in hands-on care in a rapidly evolving health care system. Students demonstrate progress through graduated levels of competence while applying their growing knowledge and skills to diverse practice situations in a collaboratively supervised clinical environment.

Students who complete this accredited, 24-month continuous study program will receive a Diploma in Medical Radiography. Graduates of the program will be eligible to write the Canadian Association of Medical Radiation Technologists (CAMRT) Certification. Many international credentialing agencies accept a Canadian diploma in Medical Radiography as a criterion for certification examination.

Students who graduate from the Medical Radiography program achieve entry-level proficiency as outlined by the CAMRT. Diploma graduates of the Medical Radiography program are also eligible for a variety of Canadian and international programs that offer Bachelor's degrees in Health Science or related disciplines. A certified Medical Radiation Technologist (MRT) can pursue advanced practice roles through continuing professional development or completing additional certifications. Other professional opportunities for the certified MRT could include administration, management, leadership, teaching, vendor sales, information technology, and research.


4.1 Performance Indicators

Upon successful completion of the MRT program, graduates will be able to:

  1. Demonstrate the core professional attributes of a Medical Radiation Technologist as reflected in professional, provincial, and federal policy, legislation, and regulations.(Professionalism)
  2. Produce optimal quality diagnostic images by applying their knowledge of human anatomy, physiology, pathology, professionalism, communication, and scientific principles.(Knowledge)
  3. Manage clinical interactions proficiently utilizing best practices in a competent, safe, and responsible manner observing legal and ethical workplace standards.(Safe Practice)
  4. Practice appropriate, accurate, effective communication with members of the public and all members of the health care team. (Communication)
  5. Support and promote a collaborative approach to providing high quality, patient-centred care while ensuring the effective functioning of self. (Teamwork)
  6. Independently respond to challenging and complex situations by evaluating relevant variables to make appropriate decisions or solve problems. (Critical Thinking)
  7. Meet the entry to practice requirements of the Canadian Association of Medical Radiation Technologists for Radiological Technology. (Competence)

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5. Collaborative Learning Process

You have chosen to work in a health care profession that demands special skills, knowledge, values, and attitudes. In order to be successful at Camosun College, students responsible for understanding and adhering to the expectations and policies as outlined in the Camosun College Policies.

Policies and expectations unique to the Medical Radiography program are outlined in the following pages. In some cases they duplicate those of the college and the clinical environment and are repeated here in order to emphasize their importance. Camosun College and program policies are designed to:

  • Enhance a learner's chance for success
  • Provide education on proper safety procedures in order to protect the student, technologists and the public
  • Ensure a high standard of knowledge and care for the patient
  • Inform the student of the expectations and responsibilities associated with professional conduct.
  • Assist students, teachers and administrative staff to monitor and intervene when a student is "at risk" of not meeting program requirements (CC)
  • You are ultimately responsible for your learning and progress and are expected to seek help in a timely manner when you are unable to meet the course requirements. The college is committed to supporting student success and to working with students in achieving their educational goals.
  • When an instructor, during the process of ongoing assessment, determines you to be at academic risk, the instructor will alert you and discuss improvement strategies. Because you are ultimately responsible for your progress, you should communicate your progress and challenges to the instructor and act on the improvement strategies suggested.
  • Students entering HHS programs are aware of and agree to these Standards and their application, including consultation among teachers and with other support services in Camosun College as required.

5.1 Supporting Diverse Learners

Purpose of Procedures and Guidelines

  1. The purpose of these guidelines are to ensure that the department supports students' educational interests and protects their rights.
  2. These guidelines ensure that students, faculty, and the Chair each understand their roles and responsibilities. It is important that each party appropriately and consistently follow all steps of the process.
  3. Departmental procedures and guidelines provide clarity when college policy is unclear or vague.

These guidelines are in place to:

  • enhance a learner's chance for success
  • provide opportunities for others to succeed
  • effectively utilize learner and college resources
  • assist students, their instructors, and staff to monitor and intervene when a student is "at risk"

5.2 AHT Student Appeals Policy

For more information, see: Camosun College Student Appeals Policy E-2.4

Purpose/Rationale

The purpose of this policy is to provide an appeal process for students who have reason to believe they have been graded unfairly or treated unjustly in relation to discipline by Camosun College (instructors or other decision-makers).

Scope/Limits

This policy applies to all students enrolled in Camosun College courses and programs. This policy does not apply to non-final grades.

During the Process

During the Appeal Process, students are entitled to:

  • Specific timelines for each stage of their appeal
  • Receive all decisions through a known, preferred means of notification & communication
  • Remain in the program during the appeals process. Students are granted permission from the Chair to continue attending classes until a final, binding decision is made regarding the student's appeal or the student withdraws from the appeal process.

Resolution Timelines

When a student initiates the formal appeals process, they are provided with a specific resolution timeline in writing by the Chair of the Allied Health & Technologies Department.

  • This timeline is to include specific times & dates that the student, the instructor or instructors, and Chair must respond with evidence, explanations, and or decisions concerning the appeal.
  • The timeline should be provided in the written communication format of preference on record for the student.
  • Sufficient explanation of the timelines and responsibilities of all parties will be provided to all involved individuals.
  • A participant's failure to comply with any stage of the timeline will immediately escalate the process to the next decision level.
  • For any portion of the timeline that the Chair cannot determine sufficiently, they will investigate & advocate on behalf of the student to ensure the most reasonable resolution time possible. The Chair cannot control specific variables, such as the dates of Board of Education meetings.
  • When possible, effort is made to prevent students from requiring the appeals process through supportive interventions consistent with Camosun College Academic Policies.
  • Programs within Allied Health & Technologies strive to ensure fairness and fair processes are observed at every stage of our supportive learning strategies processes. It is customary all communications to be shared with the ombudsman and for the ombudsman to be invited to all conversations with the student. Students are encouraged to independently seek the council of the ombudsman as well.

Section A. Multi-stage School Level Appeal (First Stage Appeal) of the Camosun College Student Appeals Policy

  1. Students initiating an appeal of their final grade in a course have ten (10) working/business days from the last day of the official posted final examination day in which to submit their appeal, in writing, to their instructor.
  2. Students initiating an appeal of a disciplinary action have ten (10) working/business days from the start of the action in which to submit their appeal, in writing, to the individual who imposed the discipline.
  3. Students and instructors have five (5) working/business days from the date the appeal was initiated to conclude any discussions regarding the status of the appeal. Unless the student notifies the instructor, in writing, that they have withdrawn the appeal, the instructor must submit their decision, in writing, to both the student and department Chair by the end of the 5th day.
  4. Students unsatisfied with the outcome of the first level of appeal have five (5) working/business days from the date of the written decision for their first (Instructor level) appeal to submit a second appeal to the departmental Chair.
  5. The student and the Chair have five (5) working/business days from the date the second appeal was initiated to conclude any discussions regarding the status of the appeal. Unless the student notifies the Chair, in writing, that they have withdrawn the appeal, the Chair must submit their decision, in writing, to both the student and Dean by the end of the 5th day.
  6. Students unsatisfied with the outcome of the second level of appeal have five (5) working/business days from the date of the written decision for their second (Chair level) appeal to submit a third appeal to the school Dean or their designate.
  7. The student and the Dean have five (5) working/business days from the date the third appeal was initiated to conclude any discussions regarding the status of the appeal. Unless the student notifies the Dean, in writing, that they have withdrawn the appeal, the Dean must submit their decision, in writing, to both the student and the Vice President Education by the end of the 5th day.
  8. Students unsatisfied with the decision of the Dean may appeal to the Vice President Education or their designate using section B. Final Appeal Stage of the College Appeals Policy.

Supporting Forms


5.3 Progression Policy

The Medical Radiography program uses the Camosun College letter grade system; please see the HHS section of this handbook for details.

A passing mark of 65% or better is required for all courses in the Medical Radiography program in order to be used as a prerequisite. Students must successfully complete all term requirements in order to progress to the next term.

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6. Professional Behaviour

6.1 Professional Body & Discipline-Specific Definitions/Competencies

Medical Radiography Program Student Conduct

Each student is required to abide by the following rules of conduct. Students who require further information on college, School of Health and Human Services, or program policies and expectations must arrange to clarify outstanding issues on their own.

Students enrolled in the Medical Radiography Program at Camosun College, must read and understand the policies and expectations of the Medical Radiography Program and agree to:

  • comply with the clinical site selection process and am willing to accept a clinical practicum at any of the affiliated clinical sites
  • comply with Camosun College policies found on the college website
  • comply with Medical Radiography program policies
  • allow my photo used for instructor/student familiarization purposes
  • allow my academic documents to be reviewed by the accrediting body
  • comply with the confidentiality of patient Information policy
  • participate in classroom/laboratory/clinical exercises that impart necessary knowledge and skills required for achieving competency in the clinical environment
  • allow fellow students and instructors to touch my person in a manner appropriate for learning the practice of Medical Radiography

Students accept that their training includes clinical simulation activities and that these activities will:

  • be explained or demonstrated by Camosun College staff member or other assigned, qualified personnel
  • involve myself, other students, staff members, clinical personnel, consenting volunteers, or consenting patients as subjects
  • be conducted in an environment appropriate for learning
  • be supervised
  • require that I am prepared and that I employ due care and attention in their completion
  • require involvement of venipuncture exercises

Student/Faculty/Staff/Technologist Relationships

As students in a program that leads to a professional career, conduct which consistently demonstrates courtesy and respect is anticipated and expected. All students have the right to expect this of their peers and instructors and the duty to reciprocate. Professional relationships must be maintained at all times.

Students are expected to abide by the Student Conduct Policy. PDF

Instructors at Camosun College are expected to abide by the Standards of Conduct Policy. PDF


6.2 Appropriate Use of Electronic Devices/Mobile Devices

In order to provide a suitable learning environment and minimize disruptions, cellular communication devices are not generally permitted during simulation labs. Mobile device behaviour that is disruptive to instruction or other students will not be tolerated and students may be asked to leave class if necessary. Students at Camosun College will comply with the Acceptable Technology Use Policy.

Mobile devices have become a constant companion for students and workplace professionals alike. There are intrinsic risks associated with their use within diagnostic sciences that prevent their safe use during clinical practicums.

Personal mobile devices are a known vector for pathogens.  They are proven to increase the risk of infection (for both students and patients) and increase the risk for contamination of samples and equipment.  Students must not use their mobile devices during active learning times while at practicum. Students should thoroughly wash their hands following any interaction with their mobile device prior to returning to learning activities in the workplace. Workplaces will usually provide students with semi-secure locations in which to store their mobile device during practicum. Students will need to evaluate if this meets their personal security requirements; or should consider leaving their mobile devices in a personally secured location; or at home during their practicum shifts.

Personal mobile devices also increase the risk of intentional and unintentional violations of patient and client privacy and confidentiality. Students should not take photos at the workplace (of themselves or the environment) while in treatment areas, including offices and workbenches to reduce the risk of unintentional privacy violations.

In the classroom, personal mobile devices can distract students from learning opportunities and instructors from providing quality instruction. If you use your personal mobile device as a learning tool, please do so respectfully and consider sharing with your instructor how your device is enhancing your experience.

Students who are disruptive in the use of their mobile devices may be asked to leave the classroom. Chronic disruptive behaviour (on mobile devices or otherwise) can result in loss of marks and the Student Conduct policy may apply.

Individual instructors may include further direction about the acceptable use of personal mobile devices during their classes within their course outlines.

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7. Classroom, Lab, or Clinic Etiquette

7.1 Expectations of Student Performance

Simulation Labs

What are "realistic simulation behaviours"?

As much as possible, the radiography labs are operated as a model of a hospital diagnostic imaging department. Students learn to conduct themselves in the same professional manner expected of them in the Clinical Environments. In addition to providing the foundational knowledge needed for students to be successful in Clinical, care has been taken to create lab activities that simulate experiences students may encounter during their Preceptorship.

Behaviours developed in simulation will prepare students for deeper learning and ease them into the culture of the healthcare environment. Simulation is designed to be a learning environment free of the potential for serious unintentional harm to come to a student or patient during the development of elementary skills. This relatively consequence-free experience is designed to encourage safe experimentation, trial and error, and growth.

In order to promote a clinical-like atmosphere, uniforms, radiation badges, and name tags should be worn during simulation labs. It is expected that students adhere to all other Health & Human Services Appearance Requirements for Clinical & Laboratory settings.


7.7 Clinic/Lab Rules

Laboratory Rules and Regulations

Proper Use of Equipment & Supplies

Care must be observed when handling x-ray equipment, accessory imaging equipment, and radiographic phantoms (models). Students should ask for guidance when faced with equipment difficulties. Do not force manipulation of any equipment item.

Students will be instructed on the proper use of all Laboratory equipment and accessories in the course of their learning experiences. All equipment user manuals are included in the corresponding D2L courses associated with the X-ray Lab activities.

Tube warm-up procedure is to be performed using posted techniques prior to commencement of radiography. Failure to perform this may result in x-ray tube damage. Tube warm-up is required when he tube has been idle for two hours or more.

Use caution with ALL equipment and supplies. Replacement and repairs are expensive. Students shall observe all posted signage, placards, checklists, and instructions during lab use. Students should report equipment or accessory failures or damage immediately. When consumable supplies need to be restocked, (i.e. gloves, image receptor covers, linens) students should notify their instructor at the conclusion of their lab.

Radiation Monitoring Devices (OSLs)

Radiation Badges are to be worn at the illustrated position indicated on the OSL, on the ventral surface of the body, at all times during Lab experiences conducted in WT 212 A or B. At all other times, Radiation Badges should be stored on the badge organizer in WT 212 C.

Students are prohibited from removing Radiation Badges from Camosun College property. Students shall be responsible for replacement costs of any Radiation Badges lost as a result of negligence. Radiation Badges that are laundered, left in direct sunlight, exposed in the primary beam, or taken on an airplane must be returned with a written explanation of the occurrence.

Exposure Restrictions

The allowed occupational exposure for students is 1 mSv/year/whole body. Any student with notable exposures will be informed. Students who wish to view their dose reports should make arrangements with the program leader.

Students who are or become pregnant during the MRT program should refer to the Pregnancy Guidelines for detailed instructions prior to participating in laboratory activities utilizing radiation.

Signs & Placards

Students are expected to observe and comply with all posted signs and placards. Each X-ray room is marked with a sign. There are also illuminated "X-rays In Use" signs wired to the x-ray units designed to light up during an exposure.

Students must never open the door to a lab while this sign is illuminated. Students shall comply with all other signage, such as: class schedules, lab assignments, and quiet please.

Food & Drink

Food, beverages, and gum are not permitted in the x-ray labs at ANY time (WT 212A & WT 212B). Beverages in sealed containers and food permissible in the library (clean, cold, quiet, non-smelly edibles) are allowed in WT 212C. Students are expected to maintain a clean classroom area, sanitary wipes are provided for this purpose.

Room Climate

A/C units in the X-ray rooms must always remain ON to protect the x-ray equipment from damage by heat expansion. Only instructors may adjust the temperature settings in the Labs. If the temperature in the Labs is excessively hot or cold, students should report this to their instructor or the program assistant.

General Positioning Labs

Students are responsible for certain duties within the rooms to which they have been assigned. These duties must be completed before leaving the lab. Lab duties will be posted for each lab by the instructor. Students need to comply with all instructor directions during labs to ensure the health and safety of all laboratory participants.

Rad Science & Anatomy Labs

Students are advised to come to each lab prepared and ready to follow instructions. Students will remain in their lab groups, as assigned per module. Students will only be required to wear their uniform scrubs if indicated by the instructor during simulation activities.

Critique Labs

Critique Labs are conducted in the MRT classroom, WT 212 C. Students do not need to wear their scrub uniforms for this lab. Students remain in their lab groups, as assigned.

Patient Care Labs Expectations and Rules

Nursing lab rooms are heavily used. The following expectations and rules will make the labs run smoother for everyone. If you do not understand these rules, get clarification from your instructor

  • The lab must be treated and maintained like a hospital nursing unit.
  • Closed toed shoes must be worn by all faculty and students in the labs at all times. This is a Work Safe BC requirement.
  • Mannequins, beds, bedside tables, and medication carts must be left clean, tidy, and free of garbage at the end of each lab.
  • At the end of each lab, the teacher basket will only contain items for reuse. Do not place garbage in the teacher baskets.
  • Do not "borrow" materials from other teacher baskets. Extra inventory can be found on the back counter and cabinets. If more supplies are needed please ask the lab assistants.
  • Please re-use and recycle when possible.
  • Place all sharps in the sharps containers carefully.
  • Charts, textbooks, and manuals are to be neatly placed on the appropriate shelves. If photocopies are needed please ask the lab assistants.
  • Absolutely NO food or drink is permitted in the labs.
  • When supplies are running low please write them on the clipboard located on the rack in each lab.

Physics Labs

Not all physics labs are conducted in the x-ray rooms. Physics labs that are held in the MRT department follow all of the rules listed in this handbook.

Physics labs held elsewhere are subject to these additional requirements:

  • NO eating
  • Students must each take their own original data down
  • Students are required to hand in this data after their instructor signs it

Lab Safety

Departmental Safety

WT212 A & B are to be kept locked at all times, except during non-exposing laboratory experiences. The door to these Labs may be propped open only while students are under direct supervision. Propping the doors open to either Lab automatically engages the exposure lock-out and the x-ray unit cannot expose.

Students should report any suspicious activities to campus security, immediately. Students should report abuse of the MRT facilities to the MRT staff, chair, program leader, or program assistant.

X-Ray Laboratories

WT 212 A & B are considered simulation learning environments. Neither x-ray system is maintained at the standards for, or the purposes of exposing human or animate subjects. It is a critical violation of laboratory safety rules to expose any live subject to radiation in the Camosun College X-ray Laboratories. Violators will find themselves subject to the full censure of the law, profession, college, and program. Students who violate this policy can be removed from the program.

X-ray Equipment

Camosun College contracts annual maintenance & radiation safety testing on all radiographic equipment as required according to Safety Code 35. Please see the Chair, Program Leader, or Program Assistant for further information.

Exposure Lock-out

To minimize the risks of unintentional exposure, both x-ray rooms are equipped with an exposure lock-out which prevents the units from energizing, even when the exposure button is depressed correctly. During student activities, the exposure lock-out (x-rays off/not possible) is always engaged unless a Camosun College Instructor or Instructional Assistant is present in the Lab. The instructor/instructional assistant must be directly supervising the students at all times when exposures are made. The instructor or instructional assistant is responsible for engaging the exposure lock-out at the completion of student activities.

Eye Wash Stations

Each X-ray Laboratory is equipped with an eyewash station. It is the student's responsibility to locate and become familiar with the product and process to use them.

MSDS Sheets & Hazardous Spills

Material Safety Data Sheets are maintained for all of the chemical products stored and used in the MRT Department. They are to be found in a clearly marked binder located in the central hallway common to WT 212 A, B, & C.

Refer to Camosun's Utility Failure information prior to attempting to manage any hazardous spill.

Latex Sensitivity

Latex allergy occurs with relatively high frequency within the healthcare environment and can have serious consequences. If a student has latex allergies, the following supplies will be made available to them:

Non latex (nitrile or vinyl) non sterile gloves

  • Powder free sterile latex gloves
  • Glove liners if latex must be used
  • Other latex free medical supplies (oxygen masks, tourniquets, etc.) when possible
  • When it is not possible to provide latex free medical supplies for a laboratory activity for a student with a latex allergy, they shall be excused from the activity

It is the responsibility of the student to identify their latex allergy to the instructor and discuss options to minimize exposure.


7.8 Clinic/Lab Information

Proximity Cards & After Hours Lab Use

Students may be issued a proximity card for WT 212 A, B, & C to facilitate group study and after-hours skills practice. Upon issue of this card, the student agrees that they shall not use the x-ray labs for any other purposes than the pursuit of the educational outcomes in the MRT courses they are enrolled. In the event that a student loses their card they must contact the Program Assistant immediately. These students may not be eligible for this privilege in the future.

Students who plan to study after hours must sign-up to do so through the an instructor or Program Assistant, who then notifies Campus Security that there will be students in the Labs. Campus Security restricts student access to the MRT Department after hours. Students working after hours may bring one other individual to work with them as a positioning partner or model (if this person is not a student from the MRT program, they should be identified to the program assistant and security when scheduling).

Inappropriate behaviour in the labs will not be tolerated. Students shall not prop open classroom or x-ray lab doors after hours. Students are responsible for damages/losses to equipment, accessories, and supplies occurring during scheduled after hours study times. Usage of all proximity cards is logged; students are urged to maintain them in strict security.

Students are responsible for turning off the equipment and tidying the rooms when after-hours sessions are completed. A/C units in the X-ray rooms must always remain ON. Students allowed access to these rooms outside of regular hours will be held responsible for activities that are deemed unacceptable and/or damage incurred. Students found in violation of any of the above program rules will be denied future access to the X-ray Labs after hours.


7.9 Pregnancy Guidelines and Procedures

Exposure to any level of radiation carries with it a certain amount of risk. As a conservative assumption for radiation protection purposes, the scientific community generally assumes that any exposure to ionizing radiation may cause undesirable biological effects and that the likelihood of the effects increases as the dose increases.

Health Canada Safety Code 35 has reviewed the relevant scientific literature and has concluded that an exposure of 0.5 rem (4mSv) provides an adequate margin of protection for the embryo/fetus. (Reference Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 8.13)

Through proper instruction, strict adherence to safety precautions and through personnel monitoring, it is possible to limit occupational exposure to under 0.5 rem (4mSv) during the period of gestation.

In the event that a student becomes pregnant, she has the option to declare or not declare her pregnancy. Voluntary declaration of pregnancy is at the discretion of the student.

To take advantage of the lower exposure limit 0.5 rem (4mSv) and additional dose monitoring provisions, the pregnant student must declare her pregnancy in writing to the Program Chair.

If the pregnant student elects not to declare her pregnancy, normal occupational exposure limits will continue to apply.

Whether or not pregnancy is declared, the pregnant student is advised to consult with her physician and select one of the following options:

A. Continued full-time status

The student must be able to meet the academic requirements and clinical objectives to continue in the program. Class or clinical time missed due to pregnancy/maternity leave will be treated as any sick time as per guidelines in the MRT and Clinical handbooks.

As per Camosun College policy, if an incomplete grade is given due to illness, temporary disability or any other reason, the student is given six weeks into the next semester in which to complete assignments or the "incomplete" will convert to an "F".

B. Withdrawal from clinical rotations with continued participation in didactic instruction

A student may choose to continue in the didactic courses, but to withdraw from the clinical courses. In this instance, the student must be able to meet the academic requirements to continue in the program. Class time missed due to pregnancy/maternity leave will be treated as any sick time (See Attendance guidelines and procedures in this handbook).

After delivery, the student's continuation of the clinical component of the program will be at the Program Chair's discretion based on which clinical semesters that were missed, and the availability of space in the clinical schedule (i.e. Student capacity).

C. Leave of Absence

Upon learning that she is pregnant, a student may choose to opt out of both the didactic and clinical components of the program until after she has delivered. Because radiography courses are only taught once a year and during the same semester every year, this may mean that the student must sit out for an entire year before the student may re-enter the program and re-enrol in the semester's courses at the point where she withdrew if space is available (please refer to HHS Student Handbook for full details). Any student who elects not to declare her pregnancy will be considered to be in continued full-time status. Written withdrawal of pregnancy declaration may occur at anytime the student determines they wish to retract.


7.10 Radiation Safety

Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dosimeters

Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) radiation monitoring devices are provided to students by Camosun College through the National Dosimetry Services (NDS) of Health Canada. Dose records are maintained at Camosun and any positive result is reported to the student by the Clinical Liaison, Program Leader, or Chair. Students are expected to adhere to the dose monitoring policy while at a clinical site.

Students must exchange their OSLs at the start of a new wearing period (September 1, December 1, March 1, and June 1). This will be facilitated by one of the Camosun College course instructors (usually Procedures or Principles) and the Program Leader while on campus or the Camosun College instructor of the clinical practicum (aka Clinical Liaison) while students are in progress at a clinical site. During an OSL exchange, the used device must be returned to Camosun within one week. In addition, students must store OSLs in a properly designated area and must not take them off site. 

Loss of OSL dosimeters

Students should immediately report the suspected loss of an OSL to their instructor through their course discussions, email, or in person. This allows the instructor to alert work teams and other students to verify the OSL hasn't been collected or exchanged by mistake. After one week, if the OSL has not been located the student must provide a written statement to the program leader indicating they have lost their OSL and require a replacement.

Students should immediately report the damage or unintentional exposure of an OSL to their instructor through their course discussions, email, or in person. As soon as possible thereafter, the student should arrange to submit their damaged or exposed OSL to the program leader. The student must include a summary of explanation as to what happened to the OSL (e.g. I mistakenly took my OSL home on my scrubs and my dog chewed it up. Or, my badge got knocked off by a patient during a transfer. It was loose in their blankets and showed up on one of my images in the penumbra, so I'm quite certain it will have an excessive dose reading.)

Students are not charged for replacement OSLs if they properly report missing or damaged OSL and request a replacement before the end of a reporting period. OSLs not returned to Camosun at the end of a clinical practicum or properly reported as lost or damaged will prevent a the student from achieving a completion in their course. Clinical practicum sites are not responsible for returning a student's OSL to Camosun College. OSLs left at a clinical site without express communication and permission from the course instructor are considered "abandoned" by the student and may be destroyed or disposed of.

Students who habitually lose or damage their OSLs and/or do not appropriately report loss or damage to their OSLs are required to reimburse the program for late, lost, and replacement fees charged to the program by Health Canada prior to receiving their diploma.

OSL exchange schedule

September to December January to April May to August

Year 1

Start of Term 1: OSL provided on campus Start of Term 2 (CP1): OSL provided on site Start of Term 3: OSL provided on campus

December 1: OSL exchanged. OSL turned into lab instructor following final competency assessment

March 1: OSL exchanged.
OSL turned into course instructor during final summative evaluation

June 1: OSL exchanged.
OSL turned into lab instructor following final competency assessment

Year 2

Start of term 4 (CP2): OSL provided on site Start of Term 5: OSL provided on campus Start of Term 6 (CP3): OSL provided on site
December 1: OSL exchanged.
OSL turned into course instructor during final summative evaluation
March 1: OSL exchanged. OSL turned into lab instructor following final competency assessment June 1: OSL exchanged
OSL turned into course instructor during final summative evaluation

See the Health Canada guidelines.

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8. Practicum Guidelines

8.1 Clinical and Community Placement Protocol

Clinical placements will be at a variety of sites on Vancouver Island. In order to provide a diverse clinical experience, as many students as possible will be assigned to a three different clinical sites over the three clinical terms. Although student input is used for site assignments, there is no guarantee that students will receive their preferred placements. Clinical placements will be assigned during the admissions process. Posted clinical assignments are considered final. Students are responsible for providing their own transportation and accommodations while on their clinical placement.

In the event a Clinical seat is vacated by a student, the clinical rotations for that student may be made available to the remaining cohort using an fair allotment process in which all members of the cohort may vie for the available seat. Seats that are reserved for waitlisted, re-entry, or transfer students may not become available.

The program reserves the right to exercise discretion when making vacated clinical seats available for re-allotment. Vacant clinical seat reassignment due to documented medical needs, compassionate accommodations, legal requirements, and/or portfolio requirements supersedes all other considerations. In these rare and special circumstances, individual students may be asked to voluntarily exchange their clinical seats. While they are not obligated to exchange their seats, they may be given special considerations in the allotment process for doing so.

When possible, the program attempts to reduce the likelihood that a student is placed in a remote location alone. Clinical seats may not become available for re-allotment if undue stress will be placed on a lone student at a remote site. Clinical site re-allotment is subject to Clinical Portfolio conditions, if a student will not meet their Competency goals when reassigned, they are considered ineligible for re-allotment.


8.2 Student Safety and Orientations on Practicums

Site Orientation

At the start of each practicum, a one or two week period will be designated as "orientation time". During the orientation period, students must seek direct supervision before interacting with a patient at all times. Students will be required to attend scheduled orientation activities on the first clinical day, as well as complete additional self-directed activities throughout the remainder of the week. Students will be required to complete an orientation checklist as evidence that they have become familiar with the department and know where to reference site policies and procedures should a new or challenging situation arise. 

Supervision

Determining the appropriate level of supervision for a student depends on patient acuity/complexity, and the student's prior knowledge and clinical experience.

The ability of a student to perform a single procedure unassisted or pass a single competency assessment does not imply that the student has developed the competence to function independently in an imaging department. A student must first gain adequate exposure to a variety of clinical scenarios before being expected to function independently or with minimal guidance. Therefore, there are specific guidelines to follow when determining the appropriate supervision for a student.

  • For a student to be deemed competent enough to perform projections/procedures independently requires a combination of academic learning, laboratory simulation (MRAD 117 or MRAD 157), and validation of competence during clinical practicum courses (MRAD 130, MRAD 260, and MRAD 290). A student who learns to perform a more advanced projection/procedure during his or her first clinical practicum cannot be deemed clinically competent since all academic requirements have not yet been met. To protect students and ensure patient safety, during the first practicum, all students must work under direct supervision (technologist is present in the procedure room observing student) at all times.
  • It is not until the second and third practicums that students should be expected to perform at a level where they can function safely with minimal guidance. A student entering the second or third practicum must not be deemed capable of working under indirect supervision (technologist immediately available, but not necessarily in the procedure room) until the minimum level of competence has been validated through formal documentation of unassisted procedures and permission of the Clinical Instructor/mentor.

In addition, the students level of participation (observed, assisted, or unassisted) must be established between the student and technologist before attempting each procedure. This may be a collaborative decision between the student and technologist and must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. When a clinical scenario is deemed too difficult for the student's level of competence/experience, assistance from a technologist is required to ensure high quality and safe patient care. 

Student Injury Reporting While at Clinical

WorkSafeBC (WSBC) coverage is extended to all students during a clinical practicum. A practicum is defined as an integral component of a program which is required for program completion and certification. It is an unpaid and supervised work experience which takes place at the host employer's premises or place of business. Out-of-province clinical practicums are not covered by WSBC.

The process for student injury reporting is as follows:

  • The student must report the injury to his or her supervisor on site and to the Program Assistant.
  • The student should be strongly encouraged to report to a first aid attendant or medical practitioner or medical treatment facility as appropriate.
  • The student must complete a Form 6A "Worker's Report of injury or Occupational disease to Employer" for all injuries which arose or are claimed to have arisen from activities undertaken as part of a practicum as defined by WSBC. This form must be faxed to the Camosun Occupational Safety & Health Liaison, at 250-370-3664.

Note: the Form 6A can be misleading in that it contains information on contacting WSBC, but it must be forwarded to Camosun Occupational Safety and Health Liaison, who will fill out the "Employer's Report of Injury" and forward it to the Ministry of Advanced Education for authorization.

It is recommended that the Clinical Instructor have copies of the WSBC Form 6A readily available in the case of a sudden injury. The WSBC Form 6A is available online

* Please note: WSBC's Teleclaim process is NOT set up for use by students.


8.3 Practice Guidelines/Professional Standards of Practice

Expectations and responsibilities of students and clinical staff are described throughout this entire handbook. Definitions and roles pertaining to the Medical Radiography program are summarized in the appendix.

Clinical education in the Medical Radiography program is divided into three practicum-based courses. Each course is 16 weeks, consisting of an orientation period, core clinical rotations, and an flexible elective or remediation period. Each course has a corresponding online learning component, which includes an orientation assignment, reflection assignments and image analysis/case review assignments.

Novice Advanced Beginner
Clinical Practicum 1 Clinical Practicum 2 Clinical Practicum 3
  • Weeks 1-2 orientation
  • Weeks 3-14 core clinical rotations –six blocks (2 weeks each)
  • Week 15-16 elective and/or remediation
  • Week 1 orientation
  • Weeks 2-13 core clinical rotations – four blocks (3 weeks each)
  • Weeks 14-16 elective and/or remediation
  • Week 1 orientation
  • Weeks 2-13 core clinical rotations – two blocks (3 weeks each); one block (6 weeks)
  • Weeks 14-16 elective and/or remediation

Clinical Placements

Island Health

The clinical education component of the program operates in collaboration with the Medical Imaging and Professional Practice departments at Island Health. All clinical placements are coordinated with Professional Practice using the Health Sciences Placement Network (HSPnet) practice education management system.

Placement Sites

The following Island Health placement sites have been accredited by the CMA:

  • South Island
    • Royal Jubilee Hospital (RJH)
    • Victoria General Hospital (VGH)
    • Saanich Peninsula Hospital (SPH)
  • Central-North Island
    • Cowichan District Hospital (CDH)
    • Nanaimo Regional General Hospital (NRGH)
    • Campbell River Hospital (CRH)

Site allocation is finalized by the program following the applicant interview process and must be accepted by the candidate upon offer of admission.

Pre-Placement Requirements

There are Practice Education Guidelines (PEG) which govern all student related activities in British Columbia and provide information on the roles and responsibilities of the Health Care Organizations and Post Secondary Institutions.

For detailed information, please visit the Health Sciences Placement Network (HSPnet) website.

Students are responsible to meet and maintain all pre-placement requirements. Proof of completion will be requested by the program before being permitted to participate (or continue) in any clinical practicum. This includes (but is not limited to):

  • Criminal Records Check
  • Standard First Aid and CPR Level C (recertification required in year 2)
  • Record of Immunizations
  • Negative TB skin test or chest x-ray: TB testing will be done annually on campus during the fall term and students will be responsible for any associated costs.
  • Flu Vaccination (recommended annually): As per the practice education guidelines, in the event of a communicable disease outbreak in the receiving agency: If the disease is known to be vaccine preventable, any unvaccinated or unprotected student is asked to leave the premises and not return until the health care organization has determined that it is safe to do so. Students who are unable to provide proof of their immunity status when requested will be asked to leave the premises until they can meet this requirement.
  • Respiratory Mask-fit Test (required annually): A properly fitted N95 respirator is required prior to the first clinical practicum and must be re-fitted annually. Mask-fit testing will be done on campus during the fall term and students will be responsible for any associated costs. Students who are placed at a Center or North Island clinical site at the time of renewal are expected to arrange for this testing. Students should not be instructed to have this test done by the health care organization.
  • Signed Confidentiality & Privacy Agreement Forms
  • Online Orientation Modules

Student Conduct While at Clinical

Non-adherence to any policy or procedure listed in the Camosun Student Handbook or Clinical Handbook, such as unsafe practice, may warrant the decision to send a student home from clinical practice. Disciplinary measures must be documented by the Clinical Instructor and forwarded to the Clinical Liaison immediately. This document must indicate that the student has been informed of the reason for dismissal and include an outline of the next step that must be taken by the student. Evidence that the student has acknowledged this document must be backed up with a student signature.

When complaints have been made against a student as a result of unsafe practice or serious professional misconduct, and the decision has been made to send the student home, the Clinical Liaison must be informed immediately. When undergoing any investigation related to unsafe student practice, it is the health care organization's responsibility to indicate to the program if the student will be permitted to return to the clinical site and if there are additional requirements recommended by Professional Practice.


8.4 Practice Appraisals

Learning Contracts

Should there be concerns about student progress, the Clinical Liaison should be notified and a learning contract may be put in place. This learning contract is put in place to support the student in attaining the required outcomes for practicum course completion and continuation in the program. It is intended to clarify what outcomes must be met within a specified timeframe. Unsuccessful completion of the learning contract may be considered an indication that the student is at significant risk of receiving a final grade status of "not complete (NC)" for the practicum course and may not be able to continue to the next phase of the program. 

CAMRT Competency-Based Curriculum

The clinical education component of the Medical Radiography program is designed to ensure that graduates meet the entry-level requirements for a Medical Radiation Technologist (MRT) practicing in the discipline of Radiologic Technology in Canada.

The national Competency Profile specifies the imaging systems operated by entry-level Radiologic Technologists and the imaging procedures that are frequently performed by them. The Competency Profile also groups specific competencies (practice tasks) into five competency categories:

  • Professional Practice
  • Patient Management
  • Health and Safety
  • Operation of Equipment
  • Procedure Management

The Competency Profile is regularly updated by a task group designated by the Canadian Association of Medical Radiation Technologists (CAMRT). The most current Competency Profile can be retrieved from camrt.ca.

It is important to note that students will gradually become proficient at performing each projection/procedure throughout their entire clinical practicum experience. It is presumed that not all students will gain clinical exposure to all of the projections/procedures listed in this handbook. An individual student's experience performing each projection/procedure will be highly site dependent.

It is up to the Clinical Instructor/mentor to help the student set appropriate learning goals based on what is available at each practicum site. The ability for a student to reach entry-level competence on an overall basis will require satisfactory performance in both simulated and clinical assessment. Clinical assessment must include documented experiences that are representative of the total CAMRT Competency Profile. This includes completion of the activities established in each clinical practicum course and completion of the Portfolio of Clinical Experience and Competence.    

Practicum-Based Courses

There are three practicum-based courses in the Medical Radiography program:

  • MRAD 130 Clinical Practicum 1 (novice)
  • MRAD 260 Clinical Practicum 2 (advanced beginner – Part I)
  • MRAD 290 Clinical Practicum 3 (advanced beginner – Part II)

Each practicum-based course includes an online component, which allows students to stay connected with the school and each other throughout the duration of the clinical term. Camosun's learning management system, Desire2Learn (D2L), enables students to access support materials, submit clinical documentation, complete assignments, track absenteeism, view course completion status, participate in discussion forums, and many other activities. Participation in online activities is an essential part of each practicum-based course.

Imaging Procedures

To meet entry-level practice requirements, students will have the opportunity to develop and demonstrate competence in a number of imaging procedures at multiple clinical sites. The procedures selected for assessment will be dependent on case availability during the student's rotation at his or her assigned clinical site. 

Academic Preparation

During academic terms, students are required to complete a series of courses having an integrated curriculum, which helps students to develop the foundational skills needed to practice in the clinical environment. Course assessments are designed to ensure that students arrive with the minimum level of competence needed to be safe to practice under the level of supervision specified for each phase of learning. 

Radiographic Procedures (General)

There are two primary courses (MRAD 117 in term 1 and MRAD 157 in term 3) that prepare students for practice specifically in General Radiography. The first occurs in term 1, prior to clinical practicum 1, and the second occurs in term 3, prior to clinical practicum 2. See Appendix for detailed list of procedures and projections included in the curriculum.

Fluoroscopic, Specialty, and Interventional Procedures

There is one primary course (MRAD 157 in term 3) that prepares students for practice specifically in Fluoroscopy, Specialty and/or Interventional Procedures, which occurs immediately prior to clinical practicum 2. See Appendix for detailed list of procedures included in the curriculum.

Operating Room Procedures

There is one primary course (MRAD 157 in term 3) that prepares students for practice specifically in the Operating Room, which occurs immediately prior to clinical practicum 2. See Appendix for detailed list of procedures included in the curriculum.

Computed Tomography (CT) Procedures

There are three courses in term 5 (final academic term) which prepare students for practice specifically in CT (MRAD 266, MRAD 277, and MRAD 279). See Appendix for detailed list of procedures included in the curriculum.

To meet entry-level practice requirements, students will have the opportunity to develop and demonstrate competence in a limited number of CT procedures. The procedures selected for assessment will be dependent on case availability during the student's rotation at his or her assigned clinical site. Students may only attempt a competency assessment in a Computed Tomography (CT) procedure in the final clinical practicum (MRAD 290).

Students will not be expected to develop the level of clinical competence necessary to work independently in a CT department/room. However, graduates will have the minimum competence necessary to begin work in CT under supervision and with additional workplace training, which may be offered by their prospective employers. Graduates will also be eligible to register for the Computed Tomography Imaging Certificate (CTIC) offered by the CAMRT. 

Clinical Requirements

Novice Portfolio

Anatomical Part Projections Unassisted
(demonstrating optimal quality and Best Practices)
Successful Competency Attempt
(one repeat attempt permitted)
Total 27 6
Finger 3 or more
  • Hand, wrist, elbow, shoulder AND
  • 6 of finger, thumb, scaphoid, forearm, humerus, clavicle, AC joints, scapula
  • 10 total
  • 1 of hand, wrist, or elbow AND
  • 1 shoulder: For shoulder assessment, include 2 or more of the following projections:
    • Anteroposterior (AP) arm neutral rotation
    • Anteroposterior (AP) arm external rotation
    • Anteroposterior (AP) arm internal rotation
    • Anteroposterior (AP) oblique (glenoid)
    • Posteroanterior (PA) oblique scapular Y
    • Anteroposterior (AP) oblique scapular Y
    • A modified version of any of the above (depending on site protocol)
Thumb 3 or more
Hand 3 or more
Wrist 3 or more
Scaphoid 1 or more
Forearm 2 or more
Elbow 3 or more
Humerus 2 or more
Shoulder 3 or more
Clavicle 2 or more
Acromioclavicular joints 1 or more
Scapula 2 or more
Toes 3 or more
  • Foot, ankle, knee, hip, pelvis AND
  • 4 of toes, calcaneus, tibia and fibula, patella, and/or femur
  • 9 total
  • 1 of foot, ankle, or knee AND 1 hip/pelvic girdle
  • For hip/pelvic girdle assessment, include AP and lateral hip projections
Foot 3 or more
Ankle 3 or more
Calcaneus 2 or more
Tibia and fibula 2 or more
Knee 3 or more
Patella 1 or more
Femur 2 or more
Hip 2 or more
Pelvis 1 or more
Sinuses 3 or more

2 of sinuses, facial bones, orbits, and/or nasal bone

Not required at this level
Facial bones 3 or more
Orbits (foreign body) 2 or more
Nasal bones 2 or more
Cervical vertebrae 3 or more Cervical, thoracic, and lumbar 1 of cervical, thoracic or lumbar
Thoracic vertebrae 2 or more
Lumbar vertebrae 3 or more
Sacrum 2 or more
Coccyx 2 or more
Ribs 2 or more
  • 1 ribs AND
  • 1 chest
  • 1 chest
  • Include PA and lateral chest projections.
Chest 2 or more
KUB 1 or more 1 of KUB or abdomen Not required at this level
Abdomen 1 or more

Advanced Beginner Portfolio Part 1

Anatomical Part Projections Unassisted Successful Competency Attempt
Total 28 (CP2 and CP3) 20 (CP2 or CP3 - cumulative)
Finger 3 or more
  • Hand, wrist, elbow, shoulder AND
  • 6 of finger, thumb, scaphoid, forearm, humerus, clavicle, AC joints, scapula
  • 10 total
Any upper extremity
  • Routine scenario
  • Trauma/adaptive scenario
  • Mobile
  • Pediatric
  • Multiple (2 or more parts)
Thumb 3 or more
Hand 3 or more
Wrist 3 or more
Scaphoid 1 or more
Forearm 2 or more
Elbow 3 or more
Humerus 2 or more
Shoulder 3 or more
Clavicle 2 or more
Acromioclavicular joints 1 or more
Scapula 2 or more
Toes 3 or more
  • Foot, ankle, knee, hip, pelvis AND
  • 4 of toes, calcaneus, tibia and fibula, patella, and/or femur
  • 9 total
Any lower extremity:
  • Routine scenario
  • Trauma/adaptive scenario
  • Mobile
  • Pediatric
  • Multiple (2 or more parts)
Foot 3 or more
Ankle 3 or more
Calcaneus 2 or more
Tibia and fibula 2 or more
Knee 3 or more
Patella 1 or more
Femur 2 or more
Hip 2 or more
Pelvis 1 or more
Sinuses 3 or more 2 of sinuses, facial bones, orbits, and/or nasal bones 1 of sinuses, facial bones, orbits, or nasal bones
Facial bones 3 or more
Orbits (foreign body) 2 or more
Nasal bones 2 or more
Cervical vertebrae 3 or more Cervical, thoracic, and lumbar Cervical or lumbar spine:
  • Routine scenario
  • Trauma/adaptive scenario
Thoracic vertebrae 2 or more
Lumbar vertebrae 3 or more
Sacrum 2 or more
Coccyx 2 or more
Ribs 2 or more
  • 1 ribs AND
  • 1 chest
Chest:
  • Routine scenario
  • Trauma/adaptive scenario
  • Mobile (1 projection)
  • Pediatric
  • Multiple (2 or more parts)
Chest 2 or more
KUB 1 or more
  • 1 Abdomen AND
  • 1 KUB
Abdomen or KUB:
  • Routine scenario
  • Acute/adaptive scenario
Abdomen 2 or more

Advance Beginner Portfolio Part 2

Procedure Image Acquisition Unassisted Successful Competency Attempt
Total 19 (CP2 or CP3 - cumulative) 5 (CP2 or CP3 - cumulative)
Esophagus/stomach (or upper GI) any 4 or more different procedures 1 procedure: (must include administration of contrast media)
Small bowel (or SBFT) any
Large bowel (or enema) any
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) any
Urinary system (urography, cystography) any
Hysterosalpingography any
Arthrography any
Myelography any
Interventional (angiography/vascular) any
Interventional (biopsy/abscess drainage) any
Interventional (joint injection) any
Interventional (stent/shunt insertion) any
Interventional (tube/line placement) any
Orthopedic (in operating room) any 1 procedure 1 procedure
Other (non-orthopedic) (in operating room) any 1 procedure
CT head unenhanced any 1 procedure 1 procedure
CT head enhanced any 1 procedure
CT neck unenhanced (soft tissue or cervical spine) any 1 procedure
CT neck enhanced any 1 procedure
CT spine (cervical, thoracic, or lumbar) any 1 procedure
CT chest unenhanced any 1 procedure 1 procedure
CT chest enhanced any 1 procedure
CT abdomen (and pelvis) unenhanced any 1 procedure 1 procedure
CT abdomen (and pelvis) enhanced any 1 procedure
CT abdomen for digestive system any 1 procedure
CT abdomen for urinary system any 1 procedure
CT pelvis unenhanced (soft tissue or bony) any 1 procedure
CT extremity any 1 procedure

Description of Clinical Progression

Novice Phase

During the novice phase, students may only perform procedures under the direct supervision of a Medical Radiation Technologist (MRT).

At the beginning of Clinical Practicum 1, students will be expected to observe or assist with radiographic procedures, as this will be the first time they are encountered in the clinical setting. Students will be provided with a pocket book for documenting daily experiences. Students will be required to keep a record of the anatomical part, exposure factors, accession number, date performed, level of participation, and technologist initials to validate their participation in these procedures. Students will then be required to present a satisfactory verbal image analysis of the projections that were observed or assisted with using the PACEMAN method that was introduced in the first academic term. In order to be prepared for verbal image analysis, students may need to spend time outside of scheduled clinical hours (either during academic time or as homework) reviewing textbooks or online resource materials. For the majority of anatomical parts, students should expect to complete the requirements for verbal image analysis by the end of week 8.

Staring in week 3, students will be expected to perform a minimum number of routine procedures unassisted, demonstrating optimal quality and best practices. Optimal quality and best practices must be evident by having a technologist complete an Observation Form. Students are encouraged to start practicing all procedure steps as soon as they have observed or assisted with a similar case type; however students should not necessarily expect that all attempts at performing a procedure unassisted will be accepted for the portfolio. Verbal image analysis of any observed or assisted attempt must be completed before requesting portfolio validation of an unassisted attempt. Depending on scheduling, students may be validated for their unassisted case on the same day a verbal image analysis is presented. Students should expect to complete this requirement by the end of week 12.

While practicing in the clinical setting, students are expected to be honest about their level of experience with each procedure, and may be asked to provide documented evidence that they have first observed or assisted with a procedure prior to attempting to perform the procedure unassisted. Once students have demonstrated sufficient practical experience and all verbal image analysis and unassisted procedures have been validated (with the exception of infrequent/unavailable procedures), they will have the opportunity to attempt several Novice Competency Assessments. Students must demonstrate a successful assessment attempt on one procedure from each required body region. Students must complete this requirement, along with all other outstanding requirements, by the end of week 15. Students are responsible for keeping track of their individual progress and should independently seek to participate in procedures that will contribute to meeting course learning outcomes within the timeframe allotted.

Completion of all Clinical Practicum 1 activities is representative that the student has achieved the novice level of clinical competence and is ready to progress to the advanced beginner phase of the program.

Advanced Beginner Phase

At the beginning of Clinical Practicum 2, students will be expected to expand on their prior level of clinical competence by performing a minimum number of routine/minimally adaptive procedures unassisted, demonstrating optimal quality, best practices and independent decision-making. Students will be expected to apply their image analysis skills at the time the case is performed (building on the PACEMAN method that was taught and practiced during the novice phase of the program). Evidence of best practices and independent decision-making must be validated by having a technologist complete and Observation Form.

Once the majority of unassisted procedures have been validated, the student has achieved the advanced beginner level of clinical competence and may be permitted to perform routine/minimally adaptive procedures under indirect supervision (radiographic procedures only). The student must seek approval from the Clinical Instructor/mentor before attempting to work under indirect supervision with other technologists. Depending on the student's clinical rotation schedule, this may be achieved within the first 3-8 weeks of CP2. It is the student's responsibility to discuss the intended level of participation and type of supervision required on a daily and/or case by case basis. For every case completed under indirect supervision, the student must confirm with the technologist who agreed to supervise that the patient may be dismissed/transported from the imaging department.

Once students have demonstrated sufficient practical experience and several unassisted procedures have been validated (with the exception of infrequent/unavailable procedures), they will have the opportunity to attempt several Advanced Beginner Competency Assessments. Starting in week 2 of CP2, students must demonstrate several successful assessment attempts on procedures having varied levels of adaptation from each body region. Clinical scenarios that require various levels of adaptation include routine, trauma, mobile, pediatric, and multi-part imaging requests. Students must complete this requirement by the end of CP3.

At the beginning of Clinical Practicum 3, students must demonstrate that they have maintained or expanded their level of clinical competence by re-validating the majority of unassisted procedures before being permitted to work under indirect supervision at the final placement site. Depending on the student's clinical rotation schedule, this may be achieved within the first 2-8 weeks of CP3. Students will be expected to complete the remaining Competency Assessments by the end of their last week scheduled in radiography (site dependent).

During their rotation in Computed Tomography (CT) in CP3, students will be expected to work under direct supervision at all times. Students will be required to observe or assist with a minimum number of CT procedures from each body region and present a verbal case review of each. Once a verbal case review for an observed or assisted procedure has been satisfactorily completed, students may be validated for the completion of a similar unassisted procedure. Specific procedures should be selected based on their frequency/availability at the clinical site. By the end of their CT rotation, students are expected to have developed the minimum competence required to independently perform select CT procedures and must complete the required CT Competency Assessments.

During their rotation in Fluoroscopy/Specialty/Interventional and the Operating Room in CP2 or CP3, students will be expected to work under direct supervision at all times. Students will be required to observe or assist with a minimum number of procedures and present a verbal case review of each. Once a verbal case review for an observed or assisted procedure has been satisfactorily completed, students may be validated for the completion of a similar unassisted procedure. Specific procedures should be selected based on their frequency/availability at the clinical site. By the end of their clinical rotations, students are expected to have developed the minimum competence required to complete select procedures and must complete the required Competency Assessments for each area.

Completion of all Clinical Practicum 2 and 3 activities is representative that the student has achieved entry-level clinical competence.

Guidelines for Clinical Assessment

Learning Pillars

Learning pillars are domains that represent the broader learning outcomes in the Medical Radiography program. These domains are used for assessment of clinical competence and to guide student development throughout each phase of learning. All of these domains are interdependent and integrated throughout the entire program. Depending on the learning activity or assessment, one domain may be emphasized more than the others. These pillars directly link to program outcomes.

Learning Pillar Key Program Outcome
Professionalism Demonstrate professionalism in a variety of health care settings and situations by exemplifying the core professional attributes of a Medical Radiation Technologist and by adhering to the Canadian Association of Medical Radiation Technologists' Code of Ethics and Best Practice Guidelines.
Knowledge Produce optimal quality diagnostic images by applying their knowledge of human anatomy, physiology, pathology, professionalism, communication, and scientific principles.
Safe Practice Manage clinical interactions proficiently utilizing best practices in a competent, safe, and responsible manner, observing legal and ethical workplace standards.
Communication Practice appropriate, accurate, effective communication with members of the public and all members of the health care team.
Teamwork Support and promote a collaborative approach to providing high quality, patient-centred care while ensuring the effective functioning of self.
Critical Thinking Independently respond to challenging and complex situations by evaluating relevant variables to make appropriate decisions or solve problems.
Competence Meet the entry to practice requirements of the Canadian Association of Medical Radiation Technologists for Radiological Technology.

Formative Evaluation

Formative evaluations are needed to assess overall performance within a specific timeframe and to provide ongoing feedback to a student. These evaluations are intended to motivate future learning and improvement. There is a formative evaluation form specifically designed for each phase of clinical progression (novice and advanced beginner). In general, students will be evaluated based on specific assessment criteria, which are categorized by learning pillar.

Each learning pillar will have one or more key course learning outcomes. "Critical criteria" on formative evaluations are different than critical criteria that are included as part of a single clinical scenario competency assessment. Non-critical criteria represent areas where students may require further guidance or where performance may be less consistent due to variability in clinical rotations and learning opportunities. For critical criteria, a higher degree of consistency in performance will be expected.

Rating Scale for Novice Formative Evaluation

Below Expectations Needs Improvement Meets Expectation Exceeds Expectation
Unsafe or unprepared to resume next rotation without plan for remediation (does not follow expectations or guidelines and/or does not follow through with personal goals). Developing at the novice level, but inconsistency in ability to maintain level of achievement and/or not able to establish appropriate goals for next rotation. Developing at the novice level (requires direct supervision in most routine situations; maintains personal level of achievement and continuously builds on experiences from prior rotations). Developing at the advanced beginner level or higher (consistently able to function with indirect supervision in routine situations; demonstrates independent, timely and effective decision-making, and is ready to take on more challenging situations.
NC Must reach/maintain minimum rating of 5 in each assessment domain by the end of CP1 to receive COM grade in MRAD 130. Depending on individual scheduling and site placement, and as competence is still developing, may expect a wide range across learning pillars (5-10).

During the novice phase, formative evaluation emphasizes the application of foundational knowledge and the ability to follow instructions. If it is believed that a novice student needs improvement on a critical criterion, a learning or remediation plan is needed. Initially, this will require setting appropriate learning goals with the clinical staff mentor and providing follow-up documentation to the program faculty instructor. If the learning plan is successful, the next formative evaluation should indicate that the student is now meeting expectations. If the learning plan is unsuccessful, and the student still needs improvement, the program faculty instructor will request to meet one-on-one with the student to review progress in more detail. It may be necessary to implement a formal learning contract, in which case the student and program enter into an agreement regarding what steps needs to be taken to demonstrate improvement in performance and successful completion of the course.

If a student is below expectations on a critical criterion (often a result of unsafe practice or professional misconduct), this indicates that the student is having significant difficulty in the clinical setting and may be at risk for non-completion of the course. In this case, it will be necessary to implement at formal learning contract.

Rating Scale for Advanced Beginner Formative Evaluation

Unsafe Novice Advanced Beginner Entry-level
Does not demonstrate the foundational knowledge required for independent practice and self-directed learning in the clinical environment and/or does not follow expectations or guidelines. Developing at the novice level (still requires direct supervision in most routine situations). Developing at the advanced beginner level (consistently able to function with indirect supervision in most routine situations). Able to function independently in most routine situations and only seeks guidance in non-routine situations.
1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10
Unacceptable performance Somewhat inadequate performance Adequate performance or slightly above Exceptional performance
NC Must reach/maintain minimum rating of 5 in each assessment domain by the end of CP2 to receive COM grade in MRAD 260. Depending on individual scheduling and site placement, and as competence is still developing, may expect a wide range across learning pillars (5-10).
NC Must reach/maintain minimum rating of 9 in each assessment criteria by the end of CP3 to receive COM grade in MRAD 290. May expect non-critical criteria to be developing at the advanced beginner level still, but must not be lower than a rating of 8.

An advanced beginner student is characterized by having some prior knowledge and practical experience. This student has already completed the novice phase of the program (under direct supervision) and has already achieved some level of clinical competence. Especially during clinical practicum 2, an advanced beginner student should expect to receive a rating of 3 or 4 on some assessment criteria (occurring early in the practicum experience), and many ratings of 5 or more for the majority of remaining assessment criteria. A rating of 3 or 4 is not necessarily indicative of unsatisfactory performance.

In other words, the numerical rating scale does not directly translate with the percentage (%) grading scheme that many are familiar with. Instead, it is important to pay attention to the qualitative description for each rating, which specifies where the student performance falls on the "spectrum" of clinical competence. A student completing their first rotation in Fluoroscopy, for example, will still need to practice under direct supervision until some level of competence has been established. The student may therefore be more appropriately rated at the novice level (numerical rating of 3 or 4).

Near the end of clinical practicum 3, however, the student should be performing at the advanced beginner level and should be able to achieve a numerical rating of 8-10 (depending on individual portfolio status of completion). A result of 10 may only be granted when a student demonstrates exceptional performance and all portfolio requirements for that modality/area have been completed. As a future member of the profession, professional development does not end at entry-level. Graduates will be expected to maintain their competence, and seek help when a situation arises that is outside of their capacity of knowledge, skills, and/or judgment.

Tips and Techniques for Providing Feedback

There are several factors contributing to student development of competence during clinical practicum. In additional to student preparation, successful development depends on the experiences that are available at each clinical site, coordinated scheduling of clinical rotations, appropriate interpersonal interactions with staff and instructors, and the effectiveness of feedback.

A copy of "Feedback, Key to Learning by Sergio J. Piccinin (Green Guide No. 4)" is available at each clinical site as an additional resource for clinical staff who will be working with students. Ordered from: http://www.stlhe.ca/publications/green-guides/

Please see the CAMRT Preceptor Guidelines, which includes a list of Canadian preceptorship programs.

Clinical Staff-Student Interactions

"To avoid conflict of interest, a teacher must not enter into a dual-role relationship with a student that is likely to detract from student development or lead to actual or perceived favoritism on the part of the teacher." (Murray, Gillese, Lennon, Mercer, Robinson, 1996)

During academic terms, students learn about appropriate professional relationships from faculty and peers. Professional boundaries must also be established during a clinical staff-student relationship—in other words, we must "practice what we preach". To assist clinical staff (technologists and Clinical Instructors) in maintaining professional boundaries, the following guidelines have been established in the Allied Health & Technologies Department at Camosun:

  1. Instructors must not give out their personal phone number(s). Students must be provided with clinical site contact numbers. In general, email and D2L are the preferred method of communication with students.
  2. Instructors must not socialize with students outside of the class/practicum setting in any manner whatsoever.
  3. Provision of a personal/character reference for a student by an instructor is strictly prohibited; however a professional reference for purposes of employment or a financial aid/award is acceptable.
  4. Instructors cannot give to or receive gifts from students. There is great potential for perceiving such a gesture as bribery. This may pose a challenge for instructors, particularly with students from other cultures where gift giving is an expected practice when saying "thank-you". It is therefore critical that instructors make it clear from the start that gifts will not be accepted (cards are allowed). If the students feel very strongly about giving something, the instructor might suggest that a gift to the clinical site department would be suitable.
  5. Finally, it is crucial to remember that we are our students' instructors, not their peers. Our role is to mentor, guide, facilitate and describe clear, specific expectations for practice while maintaining our professional boundaries.
  6. Failure of just one person to follow the above guidelines will have a profound impact on the rest of the teaching team.

8.5 Scheduling Guidelines

Students will be required to complete a certain number of hours/weeks in each procedure area, including General Radiography, Fluoroscopy, Operating Room, and Computed Tomography (CT). Students should expect mixed start times from one rotation to the next, including days, evenings, and nights, which may occur any day throughout the week.

A single rotation in a procedure area may range from 1-4 weeks long (30-120 hours); however, the majority of rotations will be limited to 1-2 weeks (30-60 hours) at a time to ensure that all students have the opportunity to develop clinical competence in each procedure area at a relatively equal rate. All students will complete 4 weeks-consecutive (120 hours) in Computed Tomography (CT) during Clinical Practicum 3.

Students assigned to a smaller site will gain less experience practicing fluoroscopy/specialty/interventional procedures and operating room procedures. For this reason, some students may experience more hours in one procedure area than others during certain practicums. See the tables below for an explanation of how allocation of time differs based on practicum and clinical site combination.

Allocation of Clinical Hours

Clinical Practicum 1 Clinical Practicum 2 Clinical Practicum 3 Total Hours
Total hours 480 (30 hours x 16 weeks) 480 (30 hours x 16 weeks) 480 (30 hours x 16 weeks) 1440 (30 hours x 48 weeks)
Orientation 60 (2 weeks) 30 (1 week) 30 (1 weeks) 120 (4 weeks)
Radiography (general) 330 (11 weeks) 210-330 (7-11 weeks) 120-240 (4-8 weeks) 780 (26 weeks)
Fluoroscopy 30 (1 week observation) 30-90 (1-3 weeks) 30-90 (1-3 weeks) 150 (5 weeks)
Operating room 30 (1 week observation) 30-90 (1-3 weeks) 30-90 (1-3 weeks) 150 (5 weeks)
Computed Tomography None 30 (1 week observation) 120 (4 weeks) 150 (5 weeks)
Remediation time/flexible rotation 30 (1 week) 30 (1 week) 30 (1 week) 90 (3 weeks)

Site Specific Scheduling Guidelines (Advanced Beginner)

Site Combination (seats) Clinical Practicum 2 (CP2) Clinical Practicum 3 (CP3)
RJH/CRH (2) or RJH/CDH (2) 240 hours radiography (including flexible rotation) 240 hours radiography (excluding flexible rotation)
90 hours fluoroscopy 30 hours fluoroscopy
90 hours operating room 30 hours operating room
30 hours CT (observation) 120 hours CT
VGH/NRGH (4) 270 hours radiography (excluding flexible rotation) 210 hours radiography (including flexible rotation)
60 hours fluoroscopy 60 hours fluoroscopy
60 hours operating room 60 hours operating room
30 hours CT (observation) 120 hours CT
CDH/RJH (2) or
CRH/RJH (2)
330 hours radiography (excluding flexible rotation) 150 hours radiography (including flexible rotation)
30 hours fluoroscopy 90 hours fluoroscopy
30 hours operating room 90 hours operating room
30 hours CT (observation) 120 hours CT
NRGH/VGH (4) 270 hours radiography (excluding flexible rotation) 210 hours radiography (including flexible rotation)
60 hours fluoroscopy 60 hours fluoroscopy
60 hours operating room 60 hours operating room
30 hours CT (observation) 120 hours CT

8.6 Attendance and Absenteeism (Clinical)

In order to meet course outcomes and develop entry-level clinical competence, attendance is mandatory. Students are expected to participate in 30 hours of clinical practice per week.

Clinical hours will be distributed across four days in a manner which optimizes each student's potential for meeting clinical requirements. Therefore, shift distribution will be site dependent and will not necessarily be scheduled on consecutive days. Shift start times will range from mornings to afternoons, evenings, and nights. With the exception of "extenuating circumstances" (see description in program handbook), personal requests for scheduling will not be taken into consideration and shift change requests throughout the term are not permitted.

Absenteeism during Orientation

Students must first complete an orientation at each clinical site before beginning regular rotations and proceeding with other course requirements. Students who are absent during the orientation period will lose time from their next scheduled rotation until having attended the minimum number of orientation hours (30-60). Students who are unable to complete orientation requirements within the first two weeks of the practicum will not be permitted to continue in the course.

Absenteeism during Regular Rotations

Students who miss two or more days within the same rotation will automatically be required to make up this time during the remediation time/flexible rotation. Students who miss two or more days within the same rotation on multiple occasions (more than twice) should consider themselves at significant risk of receiving "not complete (NC)" as their final grade for the course.

Students who miss a single day due to illness or other personal reasons will not be able to make up lost clinical time. Students who miss a single day on multiple occasions (more than four instances) will automatically be required to make up this time during the remediation time/flexible rotation. Students who miss significant clinical time due to absenteeism and who are unable to meet clinical requirements will receive a "not complete (NC)" as their final grade for the course.

Reporting Absenteeism

Student absenteeism from clinical days must be communicated to the program by means of the online course discussion forum (D2L). Although participation in the required clinical time will be included as part of clinical assessments, it is the student's responsibility to report any missed clinical time, including illness or lateness. Except in the case of an emergency, students will also be required to directly notify the designated individual at the clinical site prior to their expected arrival time. Chronic absenteeism, including repeated lateness, may result in a formal learning contract.

The clinical rotation has been developed so that all students have equal opportunity to each procedure area and clinical instruction time, and that demand is minimized on your respective medical imaging departments. Is it important that there are no alterations made to the clinical schedule.

You may attend important appointments, but should not expect to have any adjustments made to your schedule. Clinical days missed for appointments, illness, and other circumstances will be recorded as days absent. If you have a personal concern about missing clinical time, you may opt to make up the shift that was missed during the non-mandatory time (week 16).

You do not have to disclose the nature of your appointments for missing clinical time.

Remediation/"Flexible" Rotation

In the event that a student is not able to meet clinical requirements within the allotted timeframe, three weeks (90 hours) of clinical time are reserved for remediation (30 during novice and 60 during advanced beginner). For students who are able to meet clinical requirements and have not missed significant time due to absenteeism, these hours will be allocated as a "flexible" rotation. During "flex week", students will be scheduled additional time in general radiography, as well as have the opportunity to submit a proposal to participate in a procedure area or elective imaging modality of their choice. Proposals will be completed as part of an academic assignment during the final academic term and will only be considered if the student is on track for successful course completion at the end of Clinical Practicum 2. This will be the only time personal requests may be taken into consideration for scheduling. The ability to participate in an elective imaging modality will be dependent on availability/permission from each clinical site.

In order to complete each clinical course, you are required to attend 30 clinical hours per week for 15 weeks, in rotating shifts as per the posted schedule. You are not permitted to be on site or working in patient care areas outside of the posted schedule. Any exceptions to this must be pre-approved by your clinical liaison and permitted by the clinical site.

Week 16, called "flex week" is mandatory if you have:

  • more than one day absent per two week formative evaluation period
  • more than four days absent throughout the clinical term
  • not completed portfolio requirements
  • a week 14-15 formative evaluation recommending attendance

Attendance is a critical criterion on your formative evaluation. All critical criteria must be met on each formative evaluation. You may be at risk for receiving an incomplete grade if you do not follow attendance guidelines.

Academic Days

Students should consider an academic day to be a day reserved for school-related activities. Students may be expected to attend examinations on campus, or participate in other course-related activities during this time. Students should not make arrangements to attend to personal matters such as appointments without first consulting with the course instructors for both online and clinical courses. Students may be expected to meet with a course instructor, either on campus, during a site visit, or through Skype/telephone during academic time. Requests made by students to adjust the allocation of academic days within the clinical rotation schedule will not be permitted.

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9. Program Resources for Learning

9.1 Roles and Responsibilities

Camosun College

Student

  • Adheres to guidelines and policies established by the school for a safe and effective clinical education experience
  • Adheres to MRT clinical site policies and guidelines related to clinical practice and student practice
  • Takes personal responsibility for learning and is familiar with the information posted to D2L
  • Upholds the program values and professional expectations while continuing educational program off site (at practicum site)
  • Actively participates in radiographic procedures and recognizes the dual-role of the clinical setting as a learning environment and patient care/treatment facility
  • Maintains professional boundaries and resolves personal conflict/personal ethical dilemmas without being disruptive to others
  • Seeks help when needed and never works outside of personal scope of practice

School Instructor/Liaison

  • Manages/updates D2L content
  • Manages/responds to online discussion forums
  • Conducts site visits to ensure students are meeting course learning objectives/clinical requirements according to suggested milestones
  • Provides written feedback to students on all assignments
  • Helps resolve conflicts
  • Initiates success plans and/or learning contracts when remediation determined by the Clinical Instructor does not result in favourable outcomes
  • Determines final course grade (status of completion)
  • Member of the Clinical Liaison Committee

Medical Radiography Program Leader/Coordinator

  • Participates/facilitates collaboration between clinical sites and school (e.g. Clinical Liaison Committee and Program Advisory Committee)
  • Supports students when needed (e.g. involvement in learning contracts)

Allied Health & Technologies Department Chair

  • Participates/facilitates collaboration between clinical sites and school (e.g. Clinical Liaison Committee and Program Advisory Committee)
  • Supports students when needed (e.g. involvement in learning contracts)

Health Care Organization

Clinical Instructor

  • Fills the roll of preceptor/assigned clinical mentor
  • Has been officially trained by the program for evaluation of students (competency assessments and formative evaluations)
  • Maintains appropriate professional boundaries/student-instructor relationship
  • Provides feedback in a supportive and constructive manner
  • Helps resolve student-staff interactions/conflicts
  • Is familiar with the contents on D2L
  • Understands the guidelines and learning process established by the school for safe and effective clinical education
  • Member of the Clinical Liaison Committee

Clinical Staff/Technologist

  • Expected to observe/supervise student practice and offer assistance/guidance in daily practice scenarios
  • Encouraged/expected to provide verbal feedback as well as written feedback through the use of observation forms
  • Have not been officially trained by the program for evaluation of students (competency assessments and formative evaluations)

Clinical Site Supervisor/Leader/Department Manager

  • Participates/facilitates collaboration between clinical sites and school (e.g. Clinical Liaison Committee and Program Advisory Committee)
  • Meets the needs of students and staff
  • Site supervisors participate in managing student practice when the Clinical Instructor is not on site or not available

9.2 Terminology

Levels of Clinical Competence

Novice

A student who has met or is in progress for completion of Clinical Practicum 1. Novices typically "recall" information and rely on repetition of similar experiences.

The novice level of competence is based on the ability to demonstrate all critical criteria, along with a reasonable attempt at all other skills (non-critical criteria), demonstrating optimal quality and best practices. Novice students must work under direct supervision and be observed in their interactions with patients at all times.

Advanced Beginner

A student who has met Clinical Practicum 1 requirements and is in progress for completion of Clinical Practicum 2 or 3. Advanced beginners should begin to "analyze, interpret, and synthesize" information when faced with new experiences.

Entry-level

A student who has met Clinical Practicum 2 and 3 requirements (or graduate of the Medical Radiography Program).

Levels of Participation/Supervision

Determining the appropriate level of participation for a student is a collaborative decision between the student and technologist and must be evaluated on a case-by-case/daily basis. This may depend on acuity, complexity, and the student's prior knowledge and clinical experience.

Observed (O)

The student must be observant of all steps of the procedure; minimal contact or interaction with the patient; may have assisted with simple tasks (e.g. room clean up post exam); most likely when a new examination type is encountered or when the patient complexity/acuity is high, etc.

Assisted (A)

The student should demonstrate all critical criteria and must observe all steps of the procedure not performed independently; most likely when experience with the examination type is limited; there is a sudden change in patient status or an unexpected complication, etc.

Unassisted (U)

The student must demonstrate all critical criteria and perform all other steps of the procedure with minimal guidance/minimal instructions; most likely when a similar examination type has already been observed or assisted with; the patient complexity/acuity is low, etc.

A novice student is expected to demonstrate all critical criteria without prompting, but may only be able to execute the remaining procedural steps by following direct instructions/clarification. With guidance, the novice student should be able to recognize optimal quality and best practices.

An advanced beginner student is expected to demonstrate all critical criteria without prompting and execute the remaining procedural steps independently or with minimal guidance. The advanced beginner student is expected to demonstrate independent decision-making, while maintaining the ability to recognize optimal quality and best practices.

The level of participation must be established between the student and technologist before attempting the procedure. When a clinical scenario is deemed too difficult for the student's level of competence/experience, assistance from a technologist is required to ensure high quality and safe patient care.

Direct Supervision

Direct supervision means that a technologist is present in the room with the student and carefully observing (or directing) all student-patient interactions.

A student entering the novice practicum will not be proficient at performing projections/procedures on real patients and must only interact with patients under direct supervision.

Indirect Supervision

Advanced beginner students must complete all orientation requirements and demonstrate the ability to perform a variety of procedures under direct supervision at each practicum site before they may be permitted to work under indirect supervision. The procedures that must be demonstrated are dependent on availability/frequency at each clinical site.

Indirect supervision may apply to advanced beginner students while participating in rotations in General Radiography (CR, DR, mobiles, etc.), but does not include the Operating Room, Fluoroscopy and Computed Tomography. Once a minimum number of unassisted cases have been completed, the Clinical Instructor/mentor may approve the student to work under indirect supervision. Once this has been achieved, it is the responsibility of the student to discuss their ability with each technologist on a case-by-case basis.

Clinical competence is dependent on prior experience and consistency in performance and is therefore determined on an individual basis. Demonstrating competence in one clinical scenario does not necessarily imply that the student can handle a more difficult or challenging scenario. It is the student's responsibility to have a discussion with the supervising technologist about his or her ability prior to attempting each procedure under indirect supervision.

Verbal Image Analysis/Case Review

Process used to validate that student is able to apply their prior academic knowledge to clinical scenarios and to ensure that they have learned the site expectations/imaging protocols. Novice students are required to review cases that they have observed or assisted with before attempting to validate their ability to perform the same procedure type unassisted. Advanced beginner students will be expected to incorporate image analysis into their daily practice as part of the steps required to complete the procedure, but may be asked to complete a verbal analysis of a case performed unassisted before being authorized for indirect supervision. This is especially important for students who identify a procedure/projection that was unavailable/infrequently performed at their previous clinical site.

PACEMAN

The method used to apply academic knowledge and clinical experience to image analysis/assessment for decision-making. Novice students will be expected to spend significant time reviewing images after the case has been performed (or at a later date), while advanced beginner students will be expected to apply PACEMAN immediately following image acquisition and before completing the case.

Forms/Assessments

There are a variety of tools used to direct learning in the clinical environment and required as evidence for meeting the learning outcomes of each practicum course.

Portfolio of Clinical Experience and Competence

(Also called the portfolio) The portfolio is a document that is used to record confidential information about student participation in specific department imaging procedures, as well as student assessment results. The portfolio must remain at the clinical site during a clinical term and must be returned to the school by the Clinical Instructor/mentor.

Student Pocket Book

The pocket book is an intermediary between daily work and the portfolio used to record daily clinical activities, including examinations participated in with technologists. Observation forms and the level of participation must be documented in the pocket book on the day the procedure was performed. The pocket book must remain at the clinical site during a clinical term and must be returned to the school by the Clinical Instructor/mentor.

Observation Form

A "pre-assessment" form, which focuses entirely on critical criteria and limited performance indicators. Observations forms are included in the pocket book.

There are two types of observations forms: daily performance and single procedure.

Single procedure observation forms are used to validate that student performance of an unassisted case met the criteria appropriate for the practicum level. A completed observation form is needed to transfer any unassisted procedure from the pocket book to the portfolio.

Daily performance observation forms are used to provide frequent feedback on student performance.

Steps for completing an observation form:

  • Student briefly reviews imaging request to ensure case/workload is appropriate.
  • Technologist agrees to observe student performance and record feedback (student may request technologist to observe single case for portfolio or multiple cases for feedback on daily performance).
  • Student ensures form has been completed, including technologist's name and initials.

Competency Assessment Form

Assessment form used to validate that student performance of particular clinical scenario met level of competence appropriate for practicum level. Novice Competency Assessment Forms are bound in the novice portfolio. Advanced Beginner Competency Assessment Forms are provided as loose forms.

Each individual assessment provides detailed feedback regarding student performance, focusing on critical criteria, as well as additional non-critical steps. Before attempting a competency assessment, a student must demonstrate sufficient ability and/or be able to provide documented evidence that sufficient clinical (or academic) experience has been gained for that projection/procedure. In other words, a competency assessment should not be the first time the students is attempting to perform that particular projection/procedure. Students may begin to attempt competency assessments while simultaneously working to achieve unassisted procedures for the remaining anatomical parts, and thus, before having achieved indirect supervision. For example, a student who has demonstrated an unassisted wrist examination may attempt an upper extremity competency assessment on another wrist examination, even if he or she has not completed the other anatomical parts required for the upper extremity section of the portfolio.

Each competency assessment determines whether or not the student has demonstrated a satisfactory level of competence in that particular clinical (or simulated) scenario and may be treated as representative of how they would most likely perform in a future similar situation. Results of successful attempts are accumulated and contribute to a student's summative assessment of clinical competence.

Formative Evaluation Form

Assessment form used to judge ongoing student progression/increasing clinical competence (usually bi-weekly or at the end of a clinical rotation in a procedure area). Formative Evaluation Forms are bound in the portfolio. All formative evaluation forms must be submitted to D2L according to the deadlines specified in the course outlines.

Results of formative evaluations are not cumulative, and only represent student performance for the specified period of time. It is expected that while students are gaining experience in the clinical setting and moving between procedure areas/clinical sites, consistency in performance may fluctuate. However, students who are repeatedly unable to meet expectations or demonstrate improvement will be required to participate in remedial activities. A student must meet the appropriate level of competence by the final formative evaluation in order to receive a complete grade status for each clinical course (see rating scale).

Scenario/Case Selection for Competency Assessment

Testing scenarios (simulated or clinical) become increasingly more challenging as students advance through various learning activities and/or clinical experiences. This includes:

  • Routine
  • Minimally Adaptive
  • Trauma/Acute/Adaptive
  • Mobile (or non-ambulatory if mobile not available for that body region)
  • Pediatric (infant, toddler, or young child)
  • Multiple Parts

In order to prepare for competency assessments, students are expected to practice a variety of clinical scenarios for each body region throughout their scheduled clinical hours. It is the student's responsibility to seek out appropriate case scenarios and be aware of individual progress.

Desire-2-Learn (D2L)

D2L is Camosun's Learning Management System (LMS).

All students enrolled in the program, as well as clinical staff who have ongoing involvement with the program, will have access to the online content applicable to the clinical practicum course(s). This can be accessed through a web browser at any time.

D2L News Feed

The D2L News Feed is used as a centralized communication hub for updates and reminders pertaining to the all courses. The News Feed is accessible to all students enrolled in courses, academic instructors, Clinical Liaisons - the faculty course instructors, and clinical site staff who are directly involved in assessment and evaluation. Online content should be considered dynamic. All users are encouraged to set their notification settings to have notices sent directly to their email accounts. It is recommended that the News Feed be reviewed on a daily basis.

Discussion Forum

Online public forums are available for general inquiries about matters related academic courses and clinical practicum courses, such as questions about assignments, guidelines, learning goals, etc. All users, including clinical site staff, are encouraged to post inquiries or comments and respond to each other. The Clinical Liaison and/or faculty course instructors will review posts on a daily basis. All efforts will be made to provide a response within 48 business hours.

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10. Info for Graduates

10.1 Licensing & Professional Association Information

Membership in CAMRT-BC

The British Columbia Association of Medical Radiation Technologists is the representative body for MRTs in BC. The BCAMRT has a student membership category which students will be asked to sign up for. This membership provides access to BCAMRT literature, educational events and professional networking. In BC, student members have the right to vote at Annual General Meetings, and as such can influence the direction and decisions of the organization. The BCAMRT is responsible for working with the CAMRT in the administration of the certification examination. Being a student member of the BCAMRT assists this process. Information about joining the BCAMRT will be provided to the students during the first term of the program.

Students must join the BCAMRT prior to applying to take their national certification examination. Students are encouraged to join early in their program as BCAMRT has waived all fees for student membership.

CAMRT Certification Examination

At the completion of an accredited MRT program students may access the CAMRT national certification exam. This examination is the standard for employment across Canada. In provinces which regulate the MRT profession (with the exception of Quebec), an MRT must be CAMRT certified. In non-regulated provinces, most employers still use the CAMRT certification as the benchmark for hiring.

Students are advised that the CAMRT exam is costly. For information about the examination process, go to CAMRT Certification Process. This site also provides a preparation guide and practice exams.

Canadian Association Medical Radiation Technologist (CAMRT)

Code of Ethics

Medical Radiological Technologists certified by the CAMRT are governed by the following Code of Ethics. MRT students should use the Code of Ethics as a foundation in their development as health care professionals.

Patient-centred care

Patient-centred care is driven by the goal to meet the needs of patients and their family or caregivers in all aspects of their healthcare interactions. In their capacity as MRTs, CAMRT members will fulfill their role as patient-centred caregivers by:

  • Advocating and collaborating for optimal patient care
    • Advocating for the most appropriate care for patients
    • Collaborating and consulting with patients, appropriate decision-makers, and healthcare providers to facilitate optimal patient care
  • Involving patients in their own care
    • Educating patients, families, and caregivers by providing information that can be understood and used to make informed decisions about their care
    • Answering patient and family questions fully and honestly within the limits of MRT knowledge, authority, and responsibility. The MRT may be required to seek additional information or refer the patient to the most appropriate healthcare provider
  • Respecting patient dignity and rights
    • Facilitating and supporting the free and informed choices of patients, families, or caregivers, including decisions to refuse or withdraw from treatment
    • Ensuring the principles of informed consent are upheld throughout the patient's interaction within the MRT environment
    • Treating all individuals with respect and dignity, providing care regardless of race, national or ethnic origin, colour, gender, sexual orientation, religious or political affiliation, age, type of illness, mental or physical ability
  • Protecting confidentiality
    • Making every effort to ensure the physical privacy of the patient
    • Respecting the patient's right to privacy of personal information
    • Ensuring confidentiality of the patient's health information and documentation

Maintaining competence

Competence in disciplines of practice is key to delivering quality, patient-centred care. CAMRT members will fulfill their responsibility for competent practice by:

  • Performing only the procedures for which the MRT has acquired competence
  • Engaging in lifelong learning to maintain a consistent level of competence in their disciplines of practice, including accredited training and/or Continuing Professional Development (CPD) where required

Evidence-based and reflective practice

MRTs continually improve their practice to ensure the best possible patient care by committing to the principles of evidence-based and reflective practice. CAMRT members will fulfill their responsibility for best practice by:

  • Delivering care based on professional judgements that consider their clinical experience and the patient's needs
  • Remaining current on MRT trends, basing their practice choices on evidence, and applying this knowledge to the clinical and research environments as deemed appropriate
  • Using guidelines (institutional, regional, provincial, federal) in combination with clinical experience to reflect and continually improve their practice
  • Promoting a culture of research in the MRT field, which will improve the quality of evidence-based recommendations in the future

Providing a safe environment

The safety of all who come into contact with medical radiation technology is of paramount importance. CAMRT members will fulfill their responsibility for safety by:

  • Maintaining current knowledge of safety standards pertaining to the MRT's practice and conducting all procedures and examinations in keeping with these standards
  • Ensuring a safe environment and taking steps to minimize the exposure to potential risks (e.g., radiation exposure, strong magnetic fields, risk of infection)
  • Intervening in circumstances of abuse or unsafe, incompetent, or unethical practice

Acting with professional integrity

Professional integrity is key to maintaining trust in the MRT profession. CAMRT members demonstrate professional integrity by:

  • Aspiring to a high level of professional efficacy at all times
  • Treating all persons with dignity and respect
  • Maintaining and enhancing personal well-being and never performing responsibilities when under the influence of substances or affected by any condition that could impede the quality or safety of care
  • Complying with provincial, territorial, or federal laws and regulations
  • Being accountable for professional actions and decisions, including errors committed
  • Providing professional services that are safe, legal, and in the best interest of patients
  • Ensuring all oral and written statements are truthful, clear, and concise
  • Ensuring all professional activities are appropriate and are not a conflict of interest
  • Upholding the profession by conducting all professional activities in a manner that will maintain public trust and confidence
  • Making use of appropriate professional, institutional, or regulatory mechanisms to intervene when witness to abuse or unsafe, incompetent, or unethical practice while supporting colleagues who appropriately notify relevant authorities

Read the CAMRT Description of Practice

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Victoria BC V8P 5J2
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Victoria BC V9E 2C1
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